Symptoms can range from a rash around the bite area and fever to, in some cases, tiredness, aches and loss of energy that can last for years.
In a long message on his Instagram account, the Canadian singer, 25, told his 124 million followers that it had been "a rough couple of years" - but vowed to be "back better than ever".
He continued: "While a lot of people kept saying Justin Bieber looks like s***, on meth etc, they failed to realise I've been recently diagnosed with Lyme disease.
"Not only that, but had a serious case of chronic mono which affected my skin, brain function, energy, and overall health.
"These things will be explained further in a docu series I'm putting on YouTube shortly.
"You can learn all that I've been battling and OVERCOMING!!"
Last month, Bieber said he was starring in a documentary series on the video sharing website and app, which would give fans a behind the scenes look at his new album in more than four years.
It will also offer an insight into his personal life, including his marriage to model Hailey Baldwin.
Bieber is not the first singer to reveal he has the disease.
Avril Lavigne, who rose to fame with the single Complicated in 2002, spent several years away from the music scene because of it.
She previously said: "Those were the worst years of my life as I went through both physical and emotional battles.
"I was able to turn that fight into music I'm really proud of."
Justin Bieber: Seasons will begin on 27 January, with new episodes each Monday and Wednesday.
The 10-episode docu-series will be available free to watch on YouTube.